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历史学家的帽子戏法:密歇根大学的林恩·维奥拉因其对斯大林主义俄罗斯的研究获得了SSHRC金牌

林恩中提琴, 抵达阿尔汉格尔斯克的照片, 20世纪90年代末的俄罗斯, is celebrated for archival 研究 into the Stalinist era that provided revelations about perpetrators of violence 和 gave a voice to the oppressed (photo courtesy of 林恩中提琴)

林恩中提琴 was forced to contend with what she calls a “Cold War mentality” in Soviet studies after publishing her first book in 1987 – one that explored social support for Stalinism among the 俄罗斯n working-class.

“The book entailed looking at a group of factory workers who would now be called perpetrators 和 that was extremely controversial in the West,维奥拉说 祖国最好的儿子.

“人们如此确信,唯一的肇事者, 所谓的, 是斯大林还是斯大林主义, 当然, 他们是中央, but looking at [other] perpetrators was extremely important as we saw in later years in German history … so that caused me some trouble.”

将近35年后,维奥拉 大学教授 在正规澳门赌场文学院历史系任教 & 科学和蒙克全球事务学院的交叉任命 & 公共政策, is celebrated for her archival 研究 into the Stalinist era that has provided revelations about perpetrators of violence 和 given voice to those who were oppressed by the Soviet dictator’s regime. 她写了5本书,30多篇文章, 自1988年开始在正规澳门赌场担任教授以来,她指导了20多名博士生.

Her extraordinary contributions were today recognized with the highest 研究 honour bestowed by the Social 科学s 和 人文学科 研究 Council of Canada (SSHRC): 一枚金牌. SSHRC影响奖之一, 它表彰的是研究和领导能力在其领域有重大进步的学者.

Viola says she’s humbled by the recognition 和 felt a wave of imposter syndrome during a recent virtual rehearsal for the SSHRC Impact 奖 roundtable session.

“我一直在想其他所有的影响力奖得主, “上帝, 他们比我有趣多了,’”她说. “所以,这令人震惊,但这是一个巨大的荣誉,我非常、非常感激.”

The SSHRC Gold Medal completes a clean sweep of Canada’s three most prestigious humanities 和 social sciences awards for Viola, 他获得了加拿大艺术委员会 2018年Molson奖2019年Killam奖. Her lengthy list of honours also includes a Guggenheim Fellowship in 2003 和 induction into the Royal Society of Canada in 2014. “These honours are a tribute to her passion 和 fearlessness in sharing knowledge about Stalinist 俄罗斯 that continues to benefit students 和 scholars at U of T, 世界各地也是如此,” 梅勒妮Woodin他是文学院的院长 & 科学.

维奥拉对俄罗斯历史的迷恋始于高中, 当她的老师介绍她19th包括托尔斯泰和陀思妥耶夫斯基的作品. 在大学里,尽管她选择了学习心理学,但她的兴趣仍在继续.

“我以为我永远学不会俄语了,”她说.

But Viola’s comm和 of the language improved 和 she ultimately switched majors – a decision that would ultimately help reshape the way 20th20世纪俄罗斯和苏联的历史是可以理解的.

我和琳恩·维奥拉(林恩中提琴)一样,专注于书面证据, 我一直对她的勤奋感到惊讶, 苏联档案的专业知识和指挥,盖蒂说, 加州大学杰出的研究教授, 他是斯大林时期的著名学者.

很少有学者能像她那样对俄罗斯工人世界的直观理解, 农民和政府官员, 如果不研究她的作品,没有人能理解苏联的形成时期.”

Viola completed her graduate 和 doctoral degrees at Princeton University in the early 1980s amid the later phase of the Cold War – a period that she says posed varied complications for historians who were interested in the then-Soviet Union.

她说:“如果你研究的是苏联时期的资料,那是很难找到的。. “当我还是一名研究生的时候,我在档案室待了大约四个月,仅此而已.”

1991年苏联解体后, 越来越多的档案得以获取,维奥拉在俄罗斯著名历史学家的陪伴下进行了探索.

“我真的了解了当时苏联档案的来龙去脉,”她说. “这就像攻读第二个博士学位.”

档案信息获取方式的改进使维奥拉的研究转向了新的方向. 以她2007年的书为例 《正规澳门赌场》(The Unknown Gulag: The Lost World of Stalin 's Special Settlements), she delved into previously classified documents to shed light on the plight of some two million peasants who were banished from their homes 和 farms en masse in the early 1930s 和 thrown into exile in the icy hinterl和s. 十年间,成千上万的人丧生.

使用农民的信件和其他第一手资料, 这本书记录了斯大林残酷镇压农民后家庭的日常生活和苦难.

“我能跟着他们上火车, 和 then on foot or by small boat into the desolate wastel和s 和 watch 和 learn how they built these little villages out of nothing in the dead of winter,”紫百合说.

While historians from 俄罗斯 tended to take a more state-oriented approach towards studying the mass repression of peasants, 维奥拉说,她试图把更多的重点放在传递农民的故事和经历上.

“[亚历山大]索尔仁尼琴曾经说过,农民是沉默的民族——但他们不是,”维奥拉说. “The fact of the matter is they wrote thous和s upon thous和s of letters about all sorts of things through the 1930s to various agencies 和 people. 而他们的孩子,往往成为了城市居民和专业人士,也写到了他们的父母. 这不是沉默.

“我不知道这个, particularly an outsider – whether an outsider in time or in geography – can ever do full justice to these violated people. 但那确实是我的动机.”

In 2014, Viola was presented with another timely opportunity with the opening up of NKVD (former KGB) archives in Ukraine following the Maidan Revolution. 

当时, she had been searching – with little success – for quality sources on the experiences of perpetrators during the Great Terror of the late 1930s, 当时秘密警察逮捕了1人以上.500万人在斯大林的命令下. So, 克格勃档案被公开的时候, 维奥拉和一位来自德国的同事去基辅看了看.

她说:“这是令人惊叹的材料。. “They were basically the criminal files of the NKVD secret police who were arrested at the end of the Great Terror – Stalin’s scapegoats in short.”

这项研究促成了维奥拉的最新著作, 斯大林主义犯罪者在受审, 根据审讯记录, 写自白, 法庭记录和其他揭秘文件概述了内务部特工是如何被起诉的, 因在大恐怖时期犯下的罪行而被斯大林折磨和处决.

Viola describes the rush of excitement that swept the cramped reading room in the archives as she 和 historians from Ukraine 和 the 俄罗斯n province of Siberia pored over the never-before-seen documents: “We were constantly jumping up 和 saying, ”读到这! 读到这!因为之前没有人见过这种材料. 在大多数情况下, [其他历史学家]在研究这个问题上比我更有经验, 但他们, 太, 感到震惊.”

在《 斯大林主义犯罪者在受审, Viola began to be contacted by people seeking guidance on how to use archives to track down information about family members.

“Some of them were quite successful in being able to get a sense of the experiences of their gr和parents or great-gr和parents,”紫百合说.

The importance of putting names 和 faces to the ordinary people caught up in historical events is something Viola says she’s tried to impart to undergraduate students over the years – often by taking them, 打个比方, 到档案.

“They seemed very receptive to that because it brought home that we’re talking about real people – not just state institutions, 不仅仅是意识形态.”

对维奥拉来说,和本科生一起工作是能量和灵感的源泉. “我真的很喜欢大学生们的思维方式,”她说. “他们的头脑很好、很新鲜,他们提出了非常有独创性的想法, 这是一种乐趣.”

维奥拉补充说,她从指导博士生中获得了巨大的成就感和知识. “我喜欢和博士生一起工作,因为他们太聪明了, 首先, 但第二次, 我从他们身上学到了很多,”她说. “他们选择原创的话题, they do original 研究 in 俄罗斯 和 Ukraine – wherever they may need to go – 和 they become the experts on the topic. 所以,我从学习这些东西中受益.”

维奥拉说,她试图指导年轻学者如何规划研究, 构建一篇论文,并获得必要的纪律,以写数百页长的论文. 

利亚考恩, 加州大学的副校长, 研究, 称赞维奥拉丰富了俄罗斯历史,为年轻的研究人员提供了一个跳板.

“Professor Viola’s tireless work over the decades has helped ensure that the real-life impacts of atrocities are not buried away, 这些悲剧篇章的真相和微妙之处都被保存在历史的篇章中,考恩说:“. “一位充满激情的老师和导师, 她慷慨地将她的专业知识传授给无数的学生和研究生研究人员, 并为下一代历史学家提供了繁荣发展的基础.”

Viola also places a high priority on fostering a “st和ard of civility” in how her students carry themselves in academia 和 throughout their future careers.

“我读研究生的时候,正值冷战时期,人们之间的关系非常恶劣. 我不是指苏联人对美国人或加拿大人,我是指你们的学者同行, 你的同学,”她说. 

“在我看来,如果有什么东西对学习无益的话,那就是那种话语. 因此,我试图鼓励人们在开展工作和相互交往时保持一定的文明程度.”

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